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Archive for the ‘book’ Category

New books on semiotics

livstegn.jpgSemiotics, as you may or may not know, is a theory of meaning that holds that the worlds presents itself to us through signs. What is a sign? Well, in a basic sense it is the idea that some perceived part of the physical reality surrounding us – let us call this a “signifier” – acquires meaning by being coupled with some mental content; let us call this latter thing the “signified”. In other words, a sign is a function between a signifier and a signified. Take the word “dog”. As you read this word here on your computer screen, the visual input is related to a certain semantic category. As it so happens this semantic category can also be accessed by other signifiers, for instance the French word “chien”, or the Danish “hund”. In order to understand the meaning of “dog”, “chien”, or “hund” you have to know the rules linking signifier with signified.A basic problem in semiotics is how such rules arise and how they are instantiated. A particular branch of semiotics argues that rules are completely arbitrary and the product of social negotiation. That the signifier “dog” signifies a specific semantic category is due to the fact that some group of people collectively have decided to employ this semiotic rule. On the other hand, another group of semioticians argues that such rules are grounded in a basic isomorphism between the forms of the perceived world and our conceptual system. This “ground” is the very prerequisite for the formation of semiotic rules in the first place. How else would they get off the ground?

Unfortunately, there has not been a great interest among semiticians to test these assumptions through neuroscientific research. Roman Jakobson, one of the greatest semioticians of the 2oth Century, a few years before his death, said that had he been a young man he would have turned to neuroscience. To date, almost no semiotician has heeded this call.

On this note, let me mention two new semiotics publications. The first is an encyclopedia called Livstegn, written by 49 Danish researcers. (Sorry, this book is only available in Danish!) I contributed the entry on “neuroaesthetics”. Curiously it contains two entries on “neurosemiotics”. Curiously because, as I just wrote, there hardly exists any semiotic research taking its departure from neuroscience.

The second book is Frederik Stjernfelt‘s Diagrammatology, the first monograph to really consider the Peircean concept of “the diagram”. (This book is in English and is published by Springer, so everybody should be able to both get it and read it!) The interesting part about Stjernfelt’s book is that he relates Peirce’s idea of the diagram to both Husserlian phenomenology and modern cognitive linguistics – hence integrating a rather obscure semiotic concept into current discussions in cognitive science. I also know that Stjernfelt is interested in looking into the neurobiology of diagrams.

-Martin

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figure1.jpgIs binding the single most important concept in neuroscience? I think it is, even without making the concept too general or vague. On the contrary, binding seems to be a general concept to understand the workings of the brain. No more need for modules of perception, cognition, memory and action. Binding is the solution.

More specifically, what is binding? Or, to reframe the question 100%: what happens when the brain works? To many, the brain binds information together at all levels throughout the brain. If you perceive an object, that particular object is a mixture between colour, form, position, movement etc., that is bound together. Because of you look at the early sensory processes in the brain, we know that the features of an object are treated by separate processes in the brain. Accordingly, they can be lesioned separately, leading to e.g. acquired colour blindless but with intact movement perception.

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religionscience.jpgI just received the Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. It’s nothing short of a mammoth book on this topic — and I didn’t even know it was such a big topic. Basically, the book’s aim is to provide a comprehensive introduction and review of the field. The book also attempts to provide a discussion of the relation between naturalism and supernaturalism

It does this by a series of chapters of different religions and their stand on science. I’m reading the book (at home; too heavy to carry around), and hope to be able to provide a tentative review soon.

…and I always wonder why they call it a ‘handbook’ — I need both arms and feet to hold it, let alone read it.

-Thomas

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Many people are interested in the new, emerging field of neuroaesthetics – the attempt to use neuroscience to understand art and aesthetic behaviour. It is not an easy field to come to as an outsider, though. First of all, at the moment neuroaesthetics is not so much a coherent field (with textbooks and so on) as a collection of researchers with an individual interest in illuminating the neural underpinnings of art behaviour – and what these researchers take “neuroaesthetics” to mean differ rather widely. Secondly, although quite a lot has been written on neuroaesthetics in the last ten years, there is really no representative publication where newcomers can become acquainted with all the problems and research data pertinent to neuroaesthtics (for the reasons stated above).

I therefore thought that I should ease the way for the interested reader by listing a number of books that can serve as a first introduction to the world of neuroaesthetics. I have chosen to only list more or less popular books, not specialist papers, for two reasons: first, since this list is meant as an introduction, the material on it should not be too difficult; second, listing all relevant research papers is simply impossible within the framework of a short blog post. Choosing to highlight only some papers, leaving out others, would surely also make me unpopular with researchers around the world!

Neuroaesthetics can be thought of as a part of a more general study of art and aesthetics as a biological phenomenon. I will follow other proponents of this view (such as Tecumseh Fitch) in calling this broader approach bioaesthetics. The overall goal of bioaesthetics is to answer the three basic biological questions – what?, how?, why? – in regard to aesthetic behaviour in humans: what is art and aesthetics?; how does art and aesthetics spring from the brain?; and why did this cognitive ability evolve in humans? Neuroaesthetics is predominantly concerned with question number 2. In the list that follows below I will also mention a number of books that discuss the other two questions.

What is aesthetics?

Archaeological and anthropological research can help us answer such fundamental questions as when the first works of art appeared in the fossil record, what characterizes them, and who created them. It is of rather great importance to know what function(s) the first art objects had since that function reflects the cognitive capacities of those who created them. Randall White’s book from 2003, Prehistoric art (Harry N. Abrams), gives a fine overview of the when and what. Steven Mithen’s The prehistory of the mind (Thames and Hudson 1996) and David Lewis-Williams’ The mind in the cave (Thames and Hudson 2004) contain interesting speculation on the question of function and cognitive capabilities.

dancers1.jpgEqually important is ethnographic studies of what constitutes art in different contemporary societies. Much debate on “the nature” of art takes its departure from wholly theoretical considerations of what features define art. From a biological perspective it is much more interesting to know what people actually do when they create of experience art. Unfortunately, I know of no ethnographical survey, covering all the world’s cultures. However, in her books on the evolution of art Ellen Dissanayake has several great discussions of what art behaviour actually amounts to in different cultures. See especially her first two books, What is art for? (University of Washington Press 1988) and Homo Aestheticus (University of Washington Press 1992).

To these descriptions of art behaviour we should of course add the controlled investigations of experimental aesthetics. Sadly, most of the books trying to review of this psychological research tradition are rather old and outdated, but a short and idiosyncratic introduction to the field can be found in Robert Solso’s last book The psychology of art and the evolution of the conscious brain (Bradford Book 2003), which exclusive focus is on visual art, though. (Books on music are mentioned in the next section.)

How does art and aesthetics spring from the brain?

Neuroaesthetic research on how the brain gives rise to art and aesthetic behaviour can be divided up in three areas of interest: (1) Representation, (2) Emotion, and (3) Creativity.

Research on representation deals with the question of how the brain transforms perceptual inputs into mental representations – images, musical structures, etc. Since the different art forms – visual art, music, literature, dance, etc. – target different perceptual systems most researchers tend to focus on only one modality, especially vision or music. Good books on visual art are Semir Zeki’s Inner vision (Oxford University Press 1999) and Margaret Livingstone’s Vision and art (Harry N. Abrams 2002). An introduction to music research can be found in Isabelle Peretz & Roberts Zatorre (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of music (Oxford University Press 2003), and Daniel Livitin’s new book This is your brain on music (Dutton 2006). No books have yet been published on the cognitive neuroscience of literature – a great loss – but a few books on literature written from the point of view of cognitive science do exist, including Suzanne Nabantian’s Memory in literature (Palgrave Macmillan 2003) and Liza Zunshine’s Why we read fiction (Ohio State University Press 2006). This lack of books on literature written from the perspective of neuroscience is mostly due to the fact that, though there is a lot of neuroscientific research on language as such, almost no experiments yet have attempted to test specific literary questions. The same thing goes for dance and architecture as well (although some research appears to be forthcoming).

vermeer_painter.jpgResearch on emotion and art is a rather recent phenomenon and I know of only one book that explicitly deals with this topic, the book Music and emotion, edited by Patrick Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press 2001). I think there is reason to expect, though, that we will soon see several new books looking into it. (As Nancy Aiken reports in the comments to this post, her 1998 book, The biological origins of art, also deals with the question of how art elicits emotional responses. I am sorry to say I haven’t read that book yet, though.) In principle the field of emotion and art can be subdivided into two different problems: (1) How are emotions emulated by works of art? (2) How does the brain attach an aesthetic value to works of art? It is well known that a lot of art has human emotional life as its topic – think of romantic comedies, stories of vengeance and so on. Without the ability to induce these emotions in the viewer or reader such art works would simply be meaningless. So the ability of works of art to activate the brain’s emotional system is central to art. At the same time, art also activates the brain’s reward system, giving rise to such emotional reactions as feelings of beauty, ugliness, fascination, etc. Research on how such aesthetic emotions are computed by the brain is booming at the moment.

Finally, brain research on (artistic) creativity is still very much in its infancy. Several papers have been published recently investigating creative problem solving with fMRI and PET, but such research hasn’t really been translated into book presentations yet. The best new book on creativity and the brain is Kenneth Heilman’s Creativity and the brain (Psychology Press 2005). Readers interested in papers on artistic creativity will find several updated chapters in Colin Martindale, Paul Locher & Vladimir Petrov (Eds), Evolutionary and neurocognitive approaches to aesthetics, creativity and the arts (Baywood 2006) and Paul Locher, Colin Martindale & Leonid Dorfman (Eds), New directions in aesthetics, creativity and the arts (Baywood, in press).

I should also mention that in 2004 and 2005 Frank Clifford Rose and Dahlia Zaidel published two fascinating books collecting case stories and patient data casting further light on the issue of representation from the point of view of neuropsychology: Neurology and the arts (Imperial College Press 2004) and Neuropsychology of art (Psychology Press 2005).

Why did aesthetic cognition evolve in humans?

The evolutionary question of why aesthetic cognition evolved in humans is informed by several lines of evidence: archaeological findings, comparative studies of similarities and differences in cognitive behaviour between humans and other animals, genetics, etc. Researchers are often trying to identify either principles of sexual selection or natural selection as the driving force of the evolution of aesthetic cognition. The name most often associated with sexual selection – besides Darwin who first suggested it as a principle of evolution in The descent of man (1871) – is Geoffrey Miller who published the influential book The mating mind in 2000 (William Heinemann). The doyenne of adaptationist aesthetic studies (studies searching for natural selection forces) is Ellen Dissanayake who, apart from the two books already mentioned, published Art and intimacy in 2000 (at the University of Washington Press). The adaptationist approach has spawned quite a few publications in the last ten years, especially concerning the evolution of literature. Two good books on this topic is Joseph Carroll’s Literary darwinism (Routledge 2004) and the anthology The literary animal, edited by Jonathan Gottschall and D.S. Wilson (Northwestern University Press 2005).

chimp-painting.jpgIn addition to these books a number of publications dealing specifically with music have appeared very recently. The first, an anthology edited by Nils Wallin, Björn Merker and Steven Brown, entitled The origins of music (The MIT Press 2001) contains a wealth of different approaches, whereas Steven Mithen’s book The singing neanderthals from 2005 (Weidenfeld & Nicolson) promotes only one hypothesis.

As can be seen, the literature on bioaesthetics is rapidly growing and the probably only gain momentum in the coming years. It will be interesting to see if someone will attempt to synthesize research on all three questions, including research on all art forms, in one tome sometimes in the future.

-Martin

UPDATE. I have changed the embarassing mistitling of Mithen’s book pointed out by Geraldine in the comments. I have also fixed a couple of spelling errors.

There are clearly other relevent books out there which I haven’t mentioned. I encourage you all to suggest additional good titles in the comments section. I would personally be most interested in hearing of French and German books relevant to neuroaesthetics from readers speaking these languages.

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Follies of the wise

Frederick Crews‘ new book, with the rather brilliant title Follies of the Wise (Shoemaker and Hoard), appears to be the perfect christmas gift for those friends of yours who work in the humanities!

Jerry Coyne has a nice review of it in The Times Literary Supplement.

-Martin

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More books for the shelf

Yet again we have a nice collection of new books that we have received from different publishers. While we are trying to get through them, amidst the piles of work, we thought it would be a good idea to let you know about the books.

Hard science, hard choices: facts, ethics, and policies guiding brain science today, by Ackerman

Advances in neuroscience research are rapidly bringing new and complex issues to the forefront of medical and social ethics, and scholars from diverse fields have been coming together to debate the issues at stake. Acclaimed science writer, Sandra Ackerman witnessed one such gathering, and here she skilfully synthesizes those proceedings into a concise presentation of the challenges that neuroscience and neuroethics currently face. Top scholars and scientists in neuroscience and ethics convened at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., in May, 2005. They included Michael Gazzaniga, director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at Dartmouth College; Marcus Raichle of the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis; Harvard University provost Steven Hyman; Judy Illes, co-founder of the Stanford Brain Research Center; University of Virginia bioethicist Jonathan Moreno; Stacey Tovino of the Health Law and Policy Institute at the University of Houston Law Center; and Stanford law professor Hank Greely. Ackerman weaves the invigorating arguments and discussions among these and other prominent scholars into a seamless and dynamic narrative. She reveals the wide array of issues that have emerged from recent research, including brain imaging, free will and personal responsibility, disease diagnosis and prediction, brain enhancement, and the potential social, political, and legal ramifications of new discoveries. Translating these complex arguments into an engrossing account of neuroethics, she offers a rare view of science – and ethics – in the making.

Read more here.

The Primordial Emotions — The dawning of consciousness, by Derek Denton

To understand what is happening in the brain in the moment you decide, at will, to summon to consciousness a passage of Mozart’s music, or decide to take a deep breath, is like trying to “catch a phantom by the tail”. Consciousness remains that most elusive of all human phenomena – one so mysterious, one that even our highly developed knowledge of brain function can only partly explain. This book is unique in tracing the origins of consciousness. It takes the investigation back many years in an attempt to uncover just how consciousness might have first emerged. Consciousness did not develop suddenly in humans – it evolved gradually. In ‘The Primordial Emotions’, Derek Denton, a world renowned expert on animal instinct and a leader in integrative physiology, investigates the evolution of consciousness. Central to the book is the idea that the primal emotions – elements of instinctive behaviour – were the first dawning of consciousness. Throughout he examines instinctive behaviours, such as hunger for air, hunger for minerals, thirst, and pain, arguing that the emotions elicited from these behaviours and desire for gratification culminated in the first conscious states. To develop the theory he looks at behaviour at different levels of the evolutionary tree, for example of octopuses, fish, snakes, birds, and elephants. Coupled with findings from neuroimaging studies, and the viewpoints on consciousness from some of the key figures in philosophy and neuroscience, the book presents an accessible and groundbreaking new look at the problem of consciousness.

Read more here.

Handbook of binding and memory, edited by Zimmer, Mecklinger & Lindenberger

The creation and consolidation of a memory can rest on the integration of any number of possibly disparate features and contexts – colour, sound, emotion, arousal, context. How is it that these bind together to form a coherent memory? What is the role of binding in memory formation? What are the neural processes that underlie binding? Do these binding processes change with age?

This book offers an unrivalled overview of one of the most debated hotspots of modern memory research: binding. It contains 28 chapters on binding in different domains of memory, presenting classic research from the field of cognitive neuroscience. It is written by renowned scientists and leaders in the field who have made fundamental contributions to the rapidly expanding field of neurocognitive memory research. As well as presenting a state-of-the-art account of recent views on binding and its importance for remembering, it also includes a review of recent publications in the area, of benefit to both students and active researchers. More than just a survey, it supplies the reader with an integrative view on binding in memory, fostering deep insights not only into the processes and their determinants, but also into the neural mechanisms enabling these processes.

The content also encompasses a wide range of binding-related topics, including feature binding, the binding of items and contexts during encoding and retrieval, the specific roles of familiarity and recollection, as well as task- and especially age-related changes in these processes. A major section is dedicated to in-depth analyses of underlying neural mechanisms, focusing on both medial temporal and prefrontal structures. Computational approaches are covered as well.

For all students and researchers in memory, the book will not only enhance their understanding of binding, but will instigate innovative and pioneering ideas for future research.

Read more here.

The re-emergence of emergence, by Clayton & Davies

This volume introduces readers to emergence theory, outlines the major arguments in its defence, and summarizes the most powerful objections against it. It provides the clearest explication yet of this exciting new theory of science, which challenges the reductionist approach by proposing the continuous emergence of novel phenomena.

Read more here. See also this page

-Thomas

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News for the bookshelf

As we receive review copies of new books from different publishers, it’s a good idea to make you aware of the titles that are emerging these days. Although we’d like to, it won’t be possible to review all of those splendid books. Instead, we bring you here the latest new book titles. Indeed, besides being interesting to us as cognitive neuroscientists, we also find many titles relevant to discussions in neuroethics. Here are some titles that should be read by anyone interested in ethics, brain and humanity:

23prolems.jpg23 problems in system neuroscience, by van Hemmen & Sejnowski

About the book: The complexity of the brain and the protean nature of behavior remain the most elusive area of science, but also the most important. van Hemmen and Sejnowski invited 23 experts from the many areas–from evolution to qualia–of systems neuroscience to formulate one problem each. Although each chapter was written independently and can be read separately, together they provide a useful roadmap to the field of systems neuroscience and will serve as a source of inspirations for future explorers of the brain.

Note: Although stil reading the book, I there are a few chapters that are interesting to a neuroethics perspective, posing questions such as “what is the function of the thalamus?”; “shall we ever understand the fly’s brain?”; “what is the neural code?”; “how is time represented in the brain?”; and “what are the neural correlates of consciousness?”. The whole idea with this book is to pose problems that are still unanswered and that neuroscience should focus their effort on solving. The problem of what a neural code is, for example, is really one of the largest questions in modern neuroscience. Should we crack the code of the neural language, the expectation is that this will resolve our understanding of its workings and how it generates the mind.

Read more here

emotionreason.jpgEmotion and Reason, by Berthoz (translated from French)

About the book: ‘Emotion and Reason’ presents a groundbreaking new approach to understanding decision making processes and their neural bases. The book presents a sweeping survey of the science of decision making. It examines the brain mechanisms involved in making decisions, and controversially proposes that many of our perceptual actions are essentially decision making processes. Whether looking, listening, hearing, or moving, we choose to attend to certain stimuli, at the expense of others. In some psychiatric disorders the inability to respond selectively to certain stimuli can be harmful – such pathologies of decision making are additionally considered. Berthoz also considers how many decision making processes involve an internal dialogue with our other self, and how this dialogue with our “doppelganger” might be represented in the brain. He considers the important implications that a neuroscience of decision making can have for the judiciary – how we apportion blame and responsibility; for economics – with discussion of the growing field of neuroeconomics; and for theories of management. Lastly he examines decision making and creativity – if perception relies in part on decision making processes, how might this alter our view of the artistic process.
Note: “Believing as I do, that any simple look or action entails a choice, and that emotions are prepackaged decisions of great complexity, I welcome this text by Alain Berthoz and its thoughtful contributions”, Antonio Damasio

Read more here.

munakata.gifProcesses of change in brain and cognitive development, edited by Munakata and Johnson

About the book: This new volume in the highy cited and critically acclaimed Attention and Performance series is the first to provide a systematic investigation into the processes of change in mental development. It brings together world class scientists to address brain and cognitive development at several different levels, including phylogeny, genetics, neurophysiology, brain imaging, behavior, and computational modeling, across both typically and atypically developing populations. Presenting original new research from the frontiers of cognitive neuroscience, this book will have a substantial impact in this field, as well as on developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience.

Note: This book really is a mixture of developmental and general learning mechanisms in the brain. Topics range from the range of Hebbian learning; development of control of action; infants on continuity violations; the development of cognitive specialization; the infant as a synesthete; development of conceptual representations; and modules, genes and evolution. It is a truly fascinating ensemble of authors and topics that seek out to cover some of the most up-front issues not only in developmental issues, but something that should shed light on our “normal adult” cognitive operations as well.

Read more here

-Thomas

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Today’s Science carries a review of what appears to be an interesting book. (I haven’t read it myself, so I am relying on the reviewer here.) The book is Campaigning for Hearts and Minds by Ted Brader, an assistant professor at the University of Michigan. It deals with political advertisements, and how they work to target voters’ emotions. Brader analyses how subtle cues, such as music or brightly coloured images of children, can frame the ads’ contents in specific ways. And, following this analysis, he argues that “enthusiastic” and “fear inducing” ads elicit different mental reactions in whose who watch them. In the words of James Druckman, the reviewer:

Enthusiastic ads motivate individuals to participate (e.g., willingness to volunteer, intention to vote), and once participating, these individuals are likely to become even more committed to their prior preferences. The implication is that enthusiasm leads to political polarization by pushing voters to take action on behalf of their prior convictions. Fear ads have less particiatory power – although to some extent they motivate sophisticated individuals. But, fear can open the gates of persuation, and these ads tend to cause individuals to consider new information and possibly change their political preferences.

I cannot see from the review whether or not Brader considers the now vast neurobiological literature on preference formation and decision-making. But it would be an obvious thing for political scientists to do so. In 2003 the journal Political Psychology (Vol 24, Issue 4) attempted such an integration but I am not sure it has had a lot of impact on political science yet. For the rest of us, the main lesson is to turn off the tube when those attack ads come on!

References

 

Brader, T. (2006): Campaigning for hearts and minds. University of Chicago Press.

Druckman, J. (2006): Stroking the voters’ passions. Science 312: 1878-1879.

Winkielman, P. & Berridge, K. (2003): Irrational wanting and subrational liking: How rudimentary motivational and affective processes shape preferences and choices. Political Psychology 24: 657-680.

Lieberman, M.D., Schreiber, D. & Ochsner, K.N. (2003): Is political cognition like riding a bicycle? How cognitive neuroscience can inform research on political thinking. Political Psychology 24: 681-704.

-Martin

 

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The good people at the Dana Press have been kind enough to send us an advance copy of Jonathan Moreno’s forthcoming book, Mind Wars. Since it is first scheduled for publication in November (in the US; December in Europe) I will wait a few months before recording my thoughts about it here on the blog, but rest assured that you wiil hear about this book again. Mind Wars is the first book, as far as I know, to survey the American military’s use of, and involvement in, neuroscience research. Besides being a highly interesting topic in itself, this also makes the book the first neuroethics tome to really give an in depth picture of just how seriously Government and other parties are considering using neuroscience insights and methods to monitor and alter our brains. I predict it will make quite a splash in the press when November comes.

For now I want to highlight a concept much toted by Moreno: dual use. Briefly, “dual use” refers to the idea that much brain research may benefit both medicine and military use. Consider brain-machine interface research. Clever devices by which a brain damaged patient, for instance patients with locked-in syndrome, can be made able to manipulate computers or protheses also can be used by soldiers to manipulate weapons and other war related artefacts. When promoting projects or seeking funding many military researchers therefore make a big deal out of stressing how putative results may turn out to benefit health care as much as warfighting. As Moreno points out a rather big chunk of the US neuroscience effort is either directly or indirectly funded by such dual use programmes. Also, even research with no overt military funding, and with no apparant relevance to warfighting, may end up being exploited by military authorities, as neuroscience journals are routinely perused by military authorities. Perhaps this knowledge ought to give pause to brain researchers. On the other hand, it should also be noted that it is often only because of money coming from the military’s budgets that important research is being done in the first place. So the ethical connundrum of dual use is not quite that simple.

In reality, when it comes to neuroscience, “dual use” should probably be a very general and basic concept. It is hard to imagine any result stemming from our inquiry into the brain – perception, memory, motor control, etc. – which cannot be used both for both “good” and “bad”. Of course, you could say the same about many other forms of scientific results. But being the seat of the soul the brain is really the dual use organ par excellence, and we ought to think more about the problems dual use raises.

-Martin

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We've just received an interesting report written by Bärbel Hüsing, Lutz Jäncke and Brigitte Tag assessing the impact of the various neuroimaging tools available today. It attempts to survey how these brain imaging techniques are used, both in clinical and in cognitive neuroscience. It discusses the costs associated with the individual imaging techniques, the training requirements of the researchers conducting imaging experiments, and the safety of patients and subjects. Interestingly, it also dives into many of neuroethical questions discussed here on BrainEthics, including the use of neuroimaging to inform pedagogy, marketing, and "forensic psychology" (read: lie detection). In short, it will interest all people mindful of the neuroethical consequences of neuroimaging research.

I've just started reading the book. When finished I will post a more detailed review here on the blog.

 

 

-Martin

Reference

B. Hüsing, L. Jäncke & B. Tag (2006): Impact Assessment of Neuroimaging. Zürich: IOS Press. [Link to publisher's site.]

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