Yesterday, Nikos Logothetis gave a great talk at the annual keynote lecture for the Copenhagen University Research Priority Area "Body and Mind". In the lecture, Logothetis touched upon several issues on the workings of the brain – from his perspective. But at the later Master-class where it was possible to have a one-to-one discussion with him, there was little doubt about Logothetis' view about how to understand the workings of the brain and mind. And especially how to study it with neuroimaging techniques.
BOLD fMRI, he claims, can tell us something about where in the brain something is happening. But other than that, it can tell us very little about what happens in that region. In other words, Logothetis is not fascinated by the current "blobology" (AKA neo-phrenology) that is seen in much of today's neuroimaging research papers. Logothetis argues that in order to say anything intelligible about brain function, we need to go beyond the current focus on where in the brain something is happening. We need to move towards integrating multiple imaging modalities in order to get a better picture of neural processes. Logothetis himself suggested and talked mostly about EEG and deep electrodes, and MEG, in combination with BOLD fMRI. But at the master class Logothetis also discussed the use of multiple MRI modalities such as the combination of perfusion MRI (Arterial Spin Labeing) and BOLD fMRI. But BOLD alone? No way!
To the right you can see the key slide from my talk at the Master class, positing the problem of combining measurements of perfusion and atrophy to BOLD fMRI measures, as co-variates. In ageing studies, we can see BOLD fMRI changes, but there is a question whether the well-known changes in brain perfusion and atrophy plays a role in chaning the BOLD signal. That was my question to Logothetis. Click on the image to see the full details.
Oh, and did I mention that Logothetis gives little for the current neo-phrenological thoughts about a 1:1 match between a cognitive function and a brain area? The brain doesn't work that way…